Competition can be defined as a process of economic rivalry between market players to attract customers. Free and fair competition is one of the most important pillars of an efficient business environment. Since the past few decades, the Indian economy has been one of the best performers and is on high growth trajectory. In the interest of consumers as well as the economy as a whole, it becomes imperative to promote an environment that facilitates fair competition outcomes in the market, restrains anti-competitive behavior and discourages market players from adopting unfair trade practices. This is where the Competition law comes into picture. This course elaborately discusses about the evolution of the Competition law in India, the prohibition of anti-competitive agreements under the Competition Act, 2002 and the authorities established under the Act. It also discusses the concepts of abuse of dominant position as well as inquiry and investigation.